Will a gift be completed through the legal transfer of deeds? What if the donee is not aware of the gift?

Q: I have two questions regarding inheritance and gifts:

1) a family of four (mother, father and two sons) live together in one house. The father wishes to gift his house to both of his sons in his lifetime. What is the correct way of doing this Islamically?

2) can a mother gift her house (that she currently lives in) to her son without his knowledge? (i.e she transfers the property into his name without his knowledge so that she can continue to live in the property).


الجواب حامدا ومصليا ومسلما ومنه الصدق والصواب


A: 1. Mere transfer of deeds in to the names of the two sons is not sufficient for a valid transfer of ownership. A valid gift requires offer and acceptance and is complete when the donee takes possession of the gifted property, either physically or constructively through (تخلية), and has been given the authority to dispose of the property and all liabilities have been transferred to him. When taking possession, the gifted property must also be unencumbered by the property and rights of the donor. Thus, the gift will be incomplete if the father continues to reside in the house or the house is occupied by his chattels etc. One way to overcome this encumbrance is for the father to place all his chattels in to the safe keeping of the sons whilst allowing full access and then gift the property to the sons. A further condition is that if the house is divisible, i.e., it is large enough to retain its real utility should it be divided up, then it must be divided before it can be gifted to more than one son. However, if the house is not divisible, i.e., it is not large enough to retain its real utility should it be divided up, then it is permissible to gift it to more than one son without dividing it.

ففى الهندية: وتصح فى محوز مفرغ عن أملاك الواهب وحقوقه ومشاعٍ لا يقسم ولا يبقى منتفعا به بعد القسمة من جنس الانتفاع الذى كان قبل القسمة ، كالبيت الصغير والحمام الصغير. ولا تصح فى مشاع يقسم ويبقى منتفعا به قبل القسمة وبعدها. هكذا فى الكافىى. ويشترط أن يكون الموهوب مقسوما ومفرزا وقت القبض لا وقت الهبة بدليل أنه لو وهب له نصف الدار شائعا ولم يسلم حتى وهب النصف الآخر وسلم الكل تجوز. كذا فى الظهيرية. (كتاب الهبة ، الباب الثاني فيما يجوز من الهبة وما لا يجوز ، 4/376)

وفى رد المحتار: ولو وهب دارا دون ما فيها من متاعه لم يجز. وإن وهب ما فيها وسلمه دونها جاز. كذا فى المحيط. شرح مجمع. (كتاب الهبة ، 5/691)

وفى الدر المختار: وفى الجوهرة: وحيلة هبة المشغول أن يودع الشاغل أولا عند الموهوب له ثم يسلمه الدار مثلا فتصح لشغلها بمتاع فى يده. (كتاب الهبة ، 5/692)

2. As mentioned in No. 1, a valid gift requires offer and acceptance and so a mother cannot gift her house to her son without his knowledge.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *